Agroforestry systems can reduce erosion and nutrient loss and can improve soil quality. So why are those systems not cultivated on a larger scale? Landespflege Freiburg assesses potentials and requirements for ecological improvements of agricultural landscapes by agroforestry in Luxembourg. Our work is conducted on behalf of the Ministry for Sustainable Development and Infrastructure, Luxembourg. Against the background of global markets, it seems that a broader application of agroforestry is impeded mainly by economic criteria. Longer-term investments and higher work efforts still prevent most farmers from relying on agroforest systems to a larger extent. In cooperation with the administration in charge and decision makers, our joint project aims on the identification of potentials to improve incentive schemes for agroforestry in Luxembourg.